A subtle issue when using Nix and Cabal for CI

Posted on June 19, 2020

Philip and I recently migrated the CI infrastructure for Futhark to GitHub Actions. We have many different CI jobs, in particular we compile Futhark in many different ways (both stack, cabal-install, and Nix) and on various operating systems.

It has mostly been a good experience, but one of our jobs was being flaky. The job in question was responsible for compiling Futhark in order to run the unit tests (with cabal test), as well as run hlint on the source code.

To make it easy to use the same environment in CI and locally, we decided to use Nix to obtain the various necessary tools, such as GHC itself, cabal-install, and hlint. Specifically, we used a shell.nix file, and then commands such as nix-shell --pure --run 'cabal test' to run the tests. Yet sometimes cabal test would fail with a mysterious error:

/home/runner/.cabal/store/ghc-8.10.1/happy-1.19.12-77f44f4e1b397ecd8847f7694a29d33efa016984155f1eb70f21d8ed5fbf3069/bin/happy:
createProcess: runInteractiveProcess: exec: does not exist (No such file or directory)

happy is a parser generator that cabal will automatically build if necessary, like all other build tools. It took me a while to realise that the error message is misleading: the happy binary does exist (or else cabal would rebuild it), but it is dynamically linked against libraries that fail to be found (incidentally, who decided it was a good idea for the dynamic linker to report the error like that? Grumble.)

So how does this happen? Well, to cut down on build times, our CI uses caching. Specifically, it caches the ~/.cabal/packages and ~/.cabal/store directories. This means that the happy binary we use is likely one that was built during a previous CI run. However, because we run cabal under Nix, that happy binary will be dynamically linked against libraries in the Nix store (located under /nix), which we do not cache, because they are normally fetched or rebuilt by Nix on demand. The cached happy binary therefore has a dependency on very specific libraries in the Nix store, which cabal doesn’t know about! When the Nix store eventually changes, which it does semi-frequently, the path to the C library embedded in the happy binary will no longer be valid, and happy will fail to run.

How did we fix this? Not elegantly, I’m afraid: we moved cabal test to another job, specifically one builds without Nix, instead using normal Debian packages. I’d be quite curious to see if anyone has a nice solution to this problem.

Update: Philip came up with a better solution that pins the Nixpkgs revision, and ties the cabal cache to the specific revision.